249495 Army sbir 06. 2 Proposal submission instructions - 13 Учебный сайт
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Army sbir 06. 2 Proposal submission instructions - 13

Improvements in Yttria Strength for Durable Windows

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Missiles and Space

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this topic is to develop methods or techniques that will provide a 2x improvement in strength for yttria windows.

DESCRIPTION: Yttria has very desirable transmission properties for infrared windows and domes. The transmission window for yttria goes well beyond that for aluminum oxynitride, spinel, or sapphire offering the potential for longer wave applications and the best use of the mid-wave spectrum. The drawback to yttria has always been its low strength and poor thermal conductivity. Various efforts have been undertaken to improve the strength of yttria by reducing the grain size. These efforts have failed to produce small grain yttria with acceptable transmission properties. Recently published work on improving the strength of aluminum oxynitride has reported tremendous increases in strength through a combination of post firing steps such as careful optical surface finishing. The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a 2x improvement in the strength of yttria through a similar approach. Proposals that focus on reducing grain size rather than post processing of conventional large grain yttria will be considered non-responsive to the topic.

PHASE I: Evaluate the feasibility of improving the strength of yttria through post processing steps such as careful surface finishing on conventional large grain material. Feasibility of the approach should be demonstrated by comparing biaxial flexure strength measurements on small samples of both conventional yttria and conventional yttria with improved surface finishing or other post firing steps. A minimum of six 19 millimeter diameter samples of both conventional yttria and post processed yttria will be tested for both strength and transmission.

PHASE II: Demonstrate a minimum 2x improvement in strength over conventional yttria through the processes developed in Phase I. The desired strength is 250 megapascal (MPa)with a Weibull modulus of 8. Success will be demonstrated by comparing biaxial flexure strength on 25 millimeter diameter coupons. Enough coupons (approximately 25-30) will be measured to obtain the Weibull modulus. Four 3” diameter domes using the same post processing techniques will also be provided to show applicability of the finishing techniques to curved surfaces and for possible thermal shock tests.

PHASE III: High strength yttria windows would find applications in high speed missile applications as a lower cost alternative to sapphire.

REFERENCES:
1) Harris, Dan, "Material for Infrared Windows and Domes", ISBN 0-8194-3482-5, SPIE Press, 1999.
2) Warner, Charles, et al, “Characterization of ALON Optical Ceramic, Window & Dome Technologies and Materials IX, Proceedings of the SPIE, Orlando, FL March 2005”.

KEYWORDS: optical ceramics, infrared windows, domes, yttria, manufacturing process, process improvement

A06-034 TITLE: Hardware-Based Anti-Tamper Techniques

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Electronics

ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Missiles and Space

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: Design and implement new hardware anti-tamper (AT) techniques that can be employed to delay or make economically infeasible the reverse engineering or compromise of U.S. developed technologies utilized in U.S. Army weapon systems.

DESCRIPTION: All U.S. Army Program Executive Offices (PEOs) and Program Managers (PMs) are now charged with executing Army and Department of Defense (DoD) anti-tamper policies in the design and implementation of their systems to afford maximum protection of U.S. technologies, thus providing maximum protection against them being obtained and utilized and/or exploited by foreign adversaries. One area of vulnerability is in the electronics of the weapon system, where there are many critical technologies that can be compromised. Techniques are now emerging to begin to try to combat this loss of the U.S. technological advantage, but further advances are necessary to provide useful toolsets to the U.S. Army PEOs and PMs for employment in their systems. As AT is a relatively new area of concern, the development of AT techniques is in a somewhat immature state and new ideas are always needed. This effort will focus on identifying new hardware design and protection techniques and technologies that will delay reverse engineering and exploitation, slowing an adversary as much as possible in compromising U.S. technologies when they fall under their control. To date, much Government and industry effort has focused on passive board/chip coatings and self-destruct concepts, but as the U.S. Army and DoD AT organizations have evaluated them, the effectiveness and PEO and PM acceptance of these types of techniques has been limited. Other concepts that have been assessed by the AT community include manufacturing processes, obfuscation, encryption, active coatings, volume protection and other such techniques, and these and others would certainly be valid areas for further study. It should also be noted that the use of off-the-shelf components in a system can seriously compromise an AT design due to the ready availability of open-source documentation. The effort should therefore focus on denying an adversary access to enough information to begin such a data search. The technologies/techniques developed should inhibit an adversary’s exploitation and/or reverse engineering effort to a point where it will require a significant resource investment to compromise, allowing the U.S. time to advance its own technology or otherwise mitigate the loss. As a result, the U.S. Army can continue to maintain a technological edge in support of its warfighters.

PHASE I: The contractor will design and analyze the effectiveness of new and innovative anti-tamper techniques/technologies to protect weapon system critical components. The focus should be on denying an adversary access to details about radio frequency electronics such as solid-state transmitters, receivers, oscillators, and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), or digital components such as analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

PHASE II: Based on the Phase I effort, the contractor shall further develop and incorporate the hardware anti-tamper techniques/technologies into a prototype. A required Phase II deliverable shall be a prototype of the anti-tampered hardware module(s), along with documentation of the hardware AT technique, to allow for Government assessment of the techniques in preventing compromise of critical software.

PHASE III: The U.S. faces both military and economic threats to its technological advantage, thus providing good potential for an offeror to commercialize a successful Phase II effort. The intent of the Phase III effort will be to take the Phase II product and secure non-SBIR funding, Government or private sector, to develop it into a viable product. If accomplished, the product should have ready customers throughout the weapons system, electronics, aviation, space and other such markets for inclusion in technology protection applications for products developed for the U.S. military.

REFERENCES:
1) Wills, L., Newcomb, P., Eds. Reverse Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
2) Ingle, K. A. Reverse Engineering, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1994.
3) Furber, S., ARM System-on-chip Architecture, Addison-Wesley, 2000.
4) Maxfield, C. The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs, Newnes, 2004.
5) Huang, A. Hacking the Xbox: An Introduction to Reverse Engineering, No Starch, 2003.
6) Fullam, S. Hardware Hacking Projects for Geeks, O'Reilly, 2003.
7) Grand, J., Russell, R., Mitnick, K. Hardware Hacking: Have Fun While Voiding Your Warranty, Syngress, 2004.
8) Menezes, P., Oorschot, V., Vanstone, S. Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC, 1996.

KEYWORDS: Anti-Tamper, Reverse Engineering, Electronics, Self-Destruct, Energetics, Material Coatings, Active Coatings, Solid State Transmitter, Receiver, Oscillator, Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (MMIC), Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Exploitation, Hacking, Cryptography, Transceiver, System-on-a-Chip, Crypto Key-Management

A06-035 TITLE: Assessment Tool for Determining Product Assurance Readiness Levels

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and develop a prototype for a model to determine Product Assurance Readiness Levels for use in determining best value in weapon system acquisitions.

DESCRIPTION: The acquisition of quality and reliable weapon systems relies on the use of mature Product Assurance Systems. Analysis of these systems requires the use of disparate pieces of knowledge and information from numerous sources that must be synthesized by the product assurance and manufacturing engineer in order to make sound decisions and predictions. Furthermore, this knowledge and information varies widely from weapon system to weapon system, process to process, and data collection and assessment methodology. The decisions on product assurance readiness are similar but vary widely. A decision aid potentially in the form of an expert system is needed to accumulate product assurance and manufacturing lessons learned from various weapon systems, perform analysis on the available data, assign risk levels, and determine the overall product assurance readiness levels. This tool will facilitate best value acquisition programs and serve as a repository for data and data base management tools.

PHASE I: The initial phase of this SBIR is to evaluate a broad range of product assurance readiness knowledge, information, and data to determine the feasibility of developing a total product assurance readiness decision making aid. Sources of this knowledge, information and data will be identified and screened to provide the critical sources. An initial model will be developed during this phase. This model will be an AMRDEC Web Based Portal site used to prototype a limited number of specific product assurance readiness level decisions. Model must provide a comprehensive, graphical multi user interface which is compatible on the Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) network. Model must allow for data download/input and sorting by pre-approved users dependent on task function.

PHASE II: A complete model prototype will be developed during Phase II and validated using information from an actual weapon system project. The complete prototype will include a larger set of supported decisions and risk level assessments (to be selected by the SBIR team). In addition, the complete prototype will autonomously (while the model is running) notify the user of potential issues and provide risk level assignment and suggested courses of action and best practice approaches. Additional capabilities will allow the prototype to link to relevant data in libraries and external assessment information. (to be selected by the SBIR team).

PHASE III: The model will be capable of performing product assurance readiness level assessments and tracking for any complex weapon system or acquisition program. The model can be applied to complex equipment, vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft.

REFERENCES:
1) Missile Defense Agency, Engineering Manufacturing Readiness Levels (EMRL) Implementation Guide.
2) DoD Deskbook 5000.2-R, Appendix 6, Technology Readiness Levels and Their Definitions.
3) Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Manager’s Guide to Technology Transition in an Evolutionary Acquisition Environment, Version 1.0, Jan 31,2003.

KEYWORDS: Product Assurance Readiness/Analysis, Decision Making Tools, Project Tracking ,manufacturing quality, quality systems

A06-036 TITLE: Multifunctional Nanodevice Skins for Cognitive Missiles

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Materials/Processes

ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Exo-Atmospheric Product Office, MDA, Joint Program Office

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

OBJECTIVE: The development of nanodevice skins for generalized surfaces (planar or non-planar, stiff or flexible, fixed and morphing) and interlayer integration to be used for multifunctional, multi-purpose sensing, actuation, control, transmission, and feedback in cognitive missiles and other air vehicles.

DESCRIPTION: The primary objective is the development of a nanoscale deposition technique or suite of approaches that provides for passive and active circuit component manufacturing to be used in missiles and other air vehicle multifunctional skin applications. Manipulation at the nanoscale promises untold capabilities in enumerable areas both commercial and military. Specific advantages of the miniaturization of electronic circuits and components in missiles and air vehicles lie in the potential to integrate these devices into surface layers or sub-surface layers without impacting structural integrity or aerodynamics. This seamless integration allows for multifunctional skins that combine sensing, actuation and control while at the same time supporting load-bearing, self-healing, conformal or morphing functionality. Advantages to nanodevice skin integration also include increased payload, increased internal real-estate as well as concealment. Investigation of nanomaterials and nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocomposites and spintronic devices as well as low-cost Micro, and Nano Electro Mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) fabrication approaches that enable scaled-up processing are also of interest. A smart nanoskin would be one that localizes sensing, actuation and control functions at the nanoscale.

Advanced fabrication processes and manipulation at the nanoscale promise smart skin technology with numerous possibilities. Preferred functions are manufacturing of nanodevices that, due to size, can be integrated into both structural and flexible components, where the Young’s modulus of the components can vary between 5 GPa and 70 GPa. Examples of nanodevice integration into components include insertion into aircraft parts or skin to measure structural state as well as integrated onto surfaces to perform the signal processing for conformal antennas. Envisioned is a “smart” multifunctional surface or sub-surface possessing distributed sensors over a large area, measuring, for example, strain between 0.001 and 10,000 microstrains or temperatures between 18°C and 190°C while consuming power 100 mW or less. These electronic components would support feedback control functionality enabling missiles and air vehicles that can sense and respond. Device package thicknesses less than 0.25 mm would minimize any unwanted moldline stepping.
PHASE I: Explore the nanoscale approaches for manufacturing of circuit components for multifunctionality and multi-purpose sensing, actuation, control, transmission, and feedback in cognitive missiles skins. Provide a feasibility study that addresses the reliability of the method(s) selected. Identify the optimal materials and deposition techniques for mild to extreme operating conditions (nuclear environment, temperature, shock loading, etc). Provide report detailing findings.
PHASE II: Based on the results of the feasibility study in Phase I, develop a prototype circuit on a representative structure such as a missile or air vehicle. Demonstrate the system’s viability and superiority under a wide variety of conditions typical of both normal and extreme operating conditions. Develop performance metrics for cognitive missiles. Demonstrate scalable manufacturing technology during production of the articles. Provide report.

PHASE III: The development of integrated miniaturized electronics will have broad applications for both military and commercial sectors. For military applications, there is a need for high-performance electronic components such as sensors requiring less power and minimal volume that are at the same time conformal and integrated. In commercial applications, there is an increasing demand for miniaturization of components for portable consumer products benefiting from advances of reduced size, weight, integration such as personal computers and other microprocessor-driven devices, cell phones, displays, global positioning system devices, etc. The proposed technology under this effort would advance the state-of-the-art in missile structural performance (Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle, Multiple Kill Vehicle, and Kinetic Energy Interceptor), safety, life extension, preventative and other maintenance, enhanced turbine blade performance for wind energy production in low speed/turbulent conditions, earthquake resistant buildings, deformable hydrofoils for high performance submersibles, and in a spectrum of other areas, for both the government and private sectors. Advanced multifunctional warfighter uniforms and other textiles will also be of interest.

REFERENCES:
1) C. Charitidis and S. Logothetidis, “Nanoscale effects on the nanomechanical properties of multifunctional materials”, Computational Materials Science, 33(1-3) 296-302, April 2005.
2) C. Martin, J. Grisolia, L. Ressier, M. Respaud, J. P. Peyrade, F. Carcenac and C. Vieu, “Fabrication of nanodevices for magneto-transport measurements through nanoparticles”, Microelectronic Engineering, 73, 627-631, June 2004.
3) Ahmed K. Noor, Samuel L. Venneri, Donald B. Paul and Mark A. Hopkins, “Structures technology for future aerospace systems”, Computers & Structures, 74(5) 507-519, February 2000.

KEYWORDS: nanoscale, nanodevice skins, nanomaterials, smart, non-planar, distributed, Micro and Nano Electro Mechanical systems, cognitive structures, manufacturing materials

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